What is National Disaster Management Authority(NDMA)?
- The National Disaster Management Authority, NDMA, was formed in 2005 after the Government of India enacted the Disaster Management Act for establishing rules, standards, and best-practices regarding disaster management and mitigation. It is also the supreme disaster management authority in India.
- The origin of the NDMA dates back to August 1999 when the Government of India set up a High Powered Committee(HPC) to make recommendations for preparing disaster management plans while also suggesting effective mitigation mechanisms.
- A similar National Committee was set up in 2001 post the Gujarat earthquake for the same purpose.
- In a first, a thorough chapter on disaster management was included in the Tenth Five-Year Plan, while the Twelfth Finance Commission was also tasked with reviewing financial arrangements for Disaster Management.
- It was post the Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004 that the Government enacted the Disaster Management Act 2005, institutionalising NDMA.
- NDMA is headed by the Prime Minister as the ex officio chairperson.
- The chairperson(PM) can nominate other members to the NDMA, the total of which cannot exceed nine.
- The chairperson(PM) of the NDMA also has the right to nominate a vice-chairperson to the NDMA.
- The vice-chairperson enjoys the status of a Cabinet Minister and the other members enjoy the status of Minister of State.
- There is also a provision for SDMA for the state and the DDMA for the district with their distinct functions.
- The vision of the NDMA as listed on the NDMA website is, "To build a safer and disaster resilient India by a holistic, pro-active, technology driven and sustainable development strategy that involves all stakeholders and fosters a culture of prevention, preparedness and mitigation."
- The primary function of the NDMA is to lay down policies on disaster management.
- NDMA is responsible for approving the National Plan.
- NDMA also goes through the plans prepared by the Ministries or Departments of the Government of India in accordance with the National Plan and is responsible for approving them.
- The NDMC further lays down the guidelines to be followed by the state authorities in drawing up the state plan.
- Along similar lines, the NDMC also lays down guidelines to be followed by the different Ministries or Departments of the Government of India for the purpose of incorporating measures for disaster prevention or the mitigation of its effects into their development plans and projects.
- The NDMC further coordinates the enforcement and implementation of the policy and plans for disaster management.
- NDMC also provides recommendations on provision of funds for the purpose of mitigation of disasters.
- The NDMC provides support to other countries affected by major disasters at the direction of the central government.
- The NDMC can also take any additional steps that it deems essential for disaster prevention, mitigation, readiness, and capacity building in the case of dangerous crisis scenarios or disasters.
- The NDMC is also responsible for formulating broad policies and guidelines for the functioning of the National Institute of Disaster Management.