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Q1.
Directions : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. 
Crude oil has had a long history, and interesting one. It is probably one single natural resource that has been instrumental in producing maximum conflicts and wars during the last century. With such a track record, it is surprising that in the given environment, where in oil prices are breaking all records, and has become the biggest cause of concern across the globe, why is it that there is silence from some parts of the world`? It is intriguing especially when some have been paying a much higher price on fuel, as compared to their poorer counterparts. It is surprising, more so, when one realizes that the number of oil producing nations is only a handful as compared to the number of oil consuming nations. While a proactive action from the mighty and powerful can bring in a huge respite for the world, why is it that they choose to be silent ? Also, keeping in mind the fact that a few nations–both powerful and weak have some of the largest unused oil reserves,their silence and lack of any serious action look all the more aberrant. Looking at the manner things are shaping up, it just cannot be ruled out that possibly these nations have a definite interest in the increasing prices of oil. The question then is what could their underlying interest be ?
In all probability, what we are seeing right now is just a precursor to the larger picture, well laid out by them may be for the good. With rising prices, the OPEC might be delighted right now, but perhaps they are unable to see what is going to hit them. For this unprecedented rise in oil is creating a most demanding environment for alternative fuels. As and when the reserves deplete and demand really grows, more than anyone else, it is OPEC that would be badly hit, much to the glee of some nations having unused reserves which have the most to gain by using blackmailing tactics. Eventually, the countries at the receiving end would be forced to create an enabling environment for alternative energy. This trend is already visible, with India showing the way with its nuclear deal and other countries dangling the carrot of complete conversion to natural gas towards other countries in order to boost their own business. By doing so they are creating a tactical pressure on countries. As they know that the further the oil prices get pushed, the more the globe would become attracted and ready for alternative and non-conventional fuel. Moreover, for many of the countries, it might become more expensive to invest in newer technologies to conform to the emission norms than to shift to alternative sources, making the market even more attractive. And it is then that the organizations which have already invested billions of dollars in alternate fuels would mop up the global energy market completely.
The second possible reason why some nations of the world are not too enthusiastic to mitigate the price of oil is because the rising oil price is perhaps one of the major deterrents to growth of other countries. Perhaps they were hand in glove in the mechanism to raise the oil price and knowing well that this would make these nations feel the pinch. And now, the rising oil prices have put these nations in a fix. As the pressure of inflationary tendencies increases these countries cannot afford either to sit back and remain entrapped in the larger conspiracy. No wonder then that these are frantically looking around the globe - especially Africa - for newer reserves ! As it is said, oil ha
1) Shift to alternate forms of energy 2) Come to a state of war with other nations
3) Put tactical pressure on countries having oil reserves 4) Formulate more stringent emission norms and apply these across the globe
5)None of these
Answer : Shift to alternate forms of energy
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Q2.
Directions: Read the following passage carefully and give the answers :

What are the good parts of our civilization ? First and foremost there are order and safety. If today I have a quarrel with another man, I do not get beaten merely because I am physically weaker and he can kick me down. I go to law, and the law will decide as fairly as it can between the two of us. Thus in disputes between man and man right has taken the place of might. Moreover, the law protects me from robbery and violence. Nobody may come and break into my house, steal my goods or run off with my children. Of course, there are burglars, but they are very rare, and the law punishes them whenever it catches them.

It is difficult for us to realize how much this safety means. Without safety these higher acti-vities of mankind which make up civilization could not go on. The inventor could not invent, the scientist find out or the artist make beautiful things. Hence, order and safety, although they are not themselves civilization are things without which civilization would be impossible. They are as necessary to our civilization as the air we breathe is to us; and we have grown so used to them that we do not notice them any more than we notice the air.

Another great achievement of our civilization is that today civilized men are largely free from the fear of pain. They still fall ill, but illness is no longer the terrible thing it used to be.... Not only do men and women enjoy better health; they live longer than they ever did before, and they have a much better chance of growing up.... Thirdly, our civilization is more secure than any that have gone before it. This is because it is much more widely spread.... Previous civilizations were specialized and limited, they were like oases in a desert.

The essential condition for the promotion of higher activities of life is:
1) Dedication on the part of those who practise them 2) Economic freedom
3) Safety 4) State support
5)Encouragement and appreciation
Answer : Safety
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Q3.
Directions: Read the following passage carefully and give the answers :

What are the good parts of our civilization ? First and foremost there are order and safety. If today I have a quarrel with another man, I do not get beaten merely because I am physically weaker and he can kick me down. I go to law, and the law will decide as fairly as it can between the two of us. Thus in disputes between man and man right has taken the place of might. Moreover, the law protects me from robbery and violence. Nobody may come and break into my house, steal my goods or run off with my children. Of course, there are burglars, but they are very rare, and the law punishes them whenever it catches them.

It is difficult for us to realize how much this safety means. Without safety these higher acti-vities of mankind which make up civilization could not go on. The inventor could not invent, the scientist find out or the artist make beautiful things. Hence, order and safety, although they are not themselves civilization are things without which civilization would be impossible. They are as necessary to our civilization as the air we breathe is to us; and we have grown so used to them that we do not notice them any more than we notice the air.

Another great achievement of our civilization is that today civilized men are largely free from the fear of pain. They still fall ill, but illness is no longer the terrible thing it used to be.... Not only do men and women enjoy better health; they live longer than they ever did before, and they have a much better chance of growing up.... Thirdly, our civilization is more secure than any that have gone before it. This is because it is much more widely spread.... Previous civilizations were specialized and limited, they were like oases in a desert.

What according to the author, is the second merit of the present civilization ?
1) Development of means of transport and communication 2) Space research
3) Freedom from drudgery 4) Freedom from the fear of pain
5)Mental enlightenment of the people
Answer : Freedom from the fear of pain
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Q4.
Directions: Read the following passage carefully and give the answers :

What are the good parts of our civilization ? First and foremost there are order and safety. If today I have a quarrel with another man, I do not get beaten merely because I am physically weaker and he can kick me down. I go to law, and the law will decide as fairly as it can between the two of us. Thus in disputes between man and man right has taken the place of might. Moreover, the law protects me from robbery and violence. Nobody may come and break into my house, steal my goods or run off with my children. Of course, there are burglars, but they are very rare, and the law punishes them whenever it catches them.

It is difficult for us to realize how much this safety means. Without safety these higher acti-vities of mankind which make up civilization could not go on. The inventor could not invent, the scientist find out or the artist make beautiful things. Hence, order and safety, although they are not themselves civilization are things without which civilization would be impossible. They are as necessary to our civilization as the air we breathe is to us; and we have grown so used to them that we do not notice them any more than we notice the air.

Another great achievement of our civilization is that today civilized men are largely free from the fear of pain. They still fall ill, but illness is no longer the terrible thing it used to be.... Not only do men and women enjoy better health; they live longer than they ever did before, and they have a much better chance of growing up.... Thirdly, our civilization is more secure than any that have gone before it. This is because it is much more widely spread.... Previous civilizations were specialized and limited, they were like oases in a desert.

What according to the author has the freedom from the fear of pair led to ?
1) Better health 2) Devotion to duty
3) Abundant leisure 4) Increased cultural pursuits
5)None of these
Answer : Better health
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Q5.
Directions: Read the following passage carefully and give the answers :

What are the good parts of our civilization ? First and foremost there are order and safety. If today I have a quarrel with another man, I do not get beaten merely because I am physically weaker and he can kick me down. I go to law, and the law will decide as fairly as it can between the two of us. Thus in disputes between man and man right has taken the place of might. Moreover, the law protects me from robbery and violence. Nobody may come and break into my house, steal my goods or run off with my children. Of course, there are burglars, but they are very rare, and the law punishes them whenever it catches them.

It is difficult for us to realize how much this safety means. Without safety these higher acti-vities of mankind which make up civilization could not go on. The inventor could not invent, the scientist find out or the artist make beautiful things. Hence, order and safety, although they are not themselves civilization are things without which civilization would be impossible. They are as necessary to our civilization as the air we breathe is to us; and we have grown so used to them that we do not notice them any more than we notice the air.

Another great achievement of our civilization is that today civilized men are largely free from the fear of pain. They still fall ill, but illness is no longer the terrible thing it used to be.... Not only do men and women enjoy better health; they live longer than they ever did before, and they have a much better chance of growing up.... Thirdly, our civilization is more secure than any that have gone before it. This is because it is much more widely spread.... Previous civilizations were specialized and limited, they were like oases in a desert.

The third merit of the present civilization, according to the author, is:
1) The present civilization is founded on justice 2) The present civilization has liberal outlook on life
3) The present civilization has provided more leisure 4) The present civilization is more wide spread in the sense that large number of people are civilized now than ever before
5)The present civilization is more secure than any that has gone before
Answer : The present civilization is more secure than any that has gone before
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Q6.
Directions: Read the following passage carefully and give the answers :

What are the good parts of our civilization ? First and foremost there are order and safety. If today I have a quarrel with another man, I do not get beaten merely because I am physically weaker and he can kick me down. I go to law, and the law will decide as fairly as it can between the two of us. Thus in disputes between man and man right has taken the place of might. Moreover, the law protects me from robbery and violence. Nobody may come and break into my house, steal my goods or run off with my children. Of course, there are burglars, but they are very rare, and the law punishes them whenever it catches them.

It is difficult for us to realize how much this safety means. Without safety these higher acti-vities of mankind which make up civilization could not go on. The inventor could not invent, the scientist find out or the artist make beautiful things. Hence, order and safety, although they are not themselves civilization are things without which civilization would be impossible. They are as necessary to our civilization as the air we breathe is to us; and we have grown so used to them that we do not notice them any more than we notice the air.

Another great achievement of our civilization is that today civilized men are largely free from the fear of pain. They still fall ill, but illness is no longer the terrible thing it used to be.... Not only do men and women enjoy better health; they live longer than they ever did before, and they have a much better chance of growing up.... Thirdly, our civilization is more secure than any that have gone before it. This is because it is much more widely spread.... Previous civilizations were specialized and limited, they were like oases in a desert.
 
"They were like oases in a desert" what does it mean ?
1) Previous civilizations were more attractive than the present civilization 2) Previous civilizations were confined to a very limited area while barbarians were far larger in number
3) Previous civilizations were shortlived 4) Previous civilizations were attractive from outside only
5)Previous civilizations were nature based
Answer : Previous civilizations were confined to a very limited area while barbarians were far larger in number
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Q7.
Directions: Read the following passage carefully and give the answers :

What are the good parts of our civilization ? First and foremost there are order and safety. If today I have a quarrel with another man, I do not get beaten merely because I am physically weaker and he can kick me down. I go to law, and the law will decide as fairly as it can between the two of us. Thus in disputes between man and man right has taken the place of might. Moreover, the law protects me from robbery and violence. Nobody may come and break into my house, steal my goods or run off with my children. Of course, there are burglars, but they are very rare, and the law punishes them whenever it catches them.

It is difficult for us to realize how much this safety means. Without safety these higher acti-vities of mankind which make up civilization could not go on. The inventor could not invent, the scientist find out or the artist make beautiful things. Hence, order and safety, although they are not themselves civilization are things without which civilization would be impossible. They are as necessary to our civilization as the air we breathe is to us; and we have grown so used to them that we do not notice them any more than we notice the air.

Another great achievement of our civilization is that today civilized men are largely free from the fear of pain. They still fall ill, but illness is no longer the terrible thing it used to be.... Not only do men and women enjoy better health; they live longer than they ever did before, and they have a much better chance of growing up.... Thirdly, our civilization is more secure than any that have gone before it. This is because it is much more widely spread.... Previous civilizations were specialized and limited, they were like oases in a desert.
 
The most appropriate title to the above passage may be:
1) The merits of the Previous Civilizations 2) The Defects of the Present Civilizations
3) Merits and Demerits of the Present Civilizations 4) The Limitations of the Previous Civilizations
5)The Wonder That is the Modern Civilization
Answer : The merits of the Previous Civilizations
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Q8.
Directions: Read the following passage carefully and give the answers :

What are the good parts of our civilization ? First and foremost there are order and safety. If today I have a quarrel with another man, I do not get beaten merely because I am physically weaker and he can kick me down. I go to law, and the law will decide as fairly as it can between the two of us. Thus in disputes between man and man right has taken the place of might. Moreover, the law protects me from robbery and violence. Nobody may come and break into my house, steal my goods or run off with my children. Of course, there are burglars, but they are very rare, and the law punishes them whenever it catches them.
It is difficult for us to realize how much this safety means. Without safety these higher acti-vities of mankind which make up civilization could not go on. The inventor could not invent, the scientist find out or the artist make beautiful things. Hence, order and safety, although they are not themselves civilization are things without which civilization would be impossible. They are as necessary to our civilization as the air we breathe is to us; and we have grown so used to them that we do not notice them any more than we notice the air.
Another great achievement of our civilization is that today civilized men are largely free from the fear of pain. They still fall ill, but illness is no longer the terrible thing it used to be.... Not only do men and women enjoy better health; they live longer than they ever did before, and they have a much better chance of growing up.... Thirdly, our civilization is more secure than any that have gone before it. This is because it is much more widely spread.... Previous civilizations were specialized and limited, they were like oases in a desert.
 
Directions Pick out the most appropriate equivalent (synonym) of the following words taken from the above passage :

Rare:
1) Profuse 2) Limited
3) Measured 4) Unmeasured
5)Uncalculated
Answer : Limited
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Q9.
Directions: Read the following passage carefully and give the answers :

What are the good parts of our civilization ? First and foremost there are order and safety. If today I have a quarrel with another man, I do not get beaten merely because I am physically weaker and he can kick me down. I go to law, and the law will decide as fairly as it can between the two of us. Thus in disputes between man and man right has taken the place of might. Moreover, the law protects me from robbery and violence. Nobody may come and break into my house, steal my goods or run off with my children. Of course, there are burglars, but they are very rare, and the law punishes them whenever it catches them.
It is difficult for us to realize how much this safety means. Without safety these higher acti-vities of mankind which make up civilization could not go on. The inventor could not invent, the scientist find out or the artist make beautiful things. Hence, order and safety, although they are not themselves civilization are things without which civilization would be impossible. They are as necessary to our civilization as the air we breathe is to us; and we have grown so used to them that we do not notice them any more than we notice the air.
Another great achievement of our civilization is that today civilized men are largely free from the fear of pain. They still fall ill, but illness is no longer the terrible thing it used to be.... Not only do men and women enjoy better health; they live longer than they ever did before, and they have a much better chance of growing up.... Thirdly, our civilization is more secure than any that have gone before it. This is because it is much more widely spread.... Previous civilizations were specialized and limited, they were like oases in a desert.
 
Directions Pick out the most appropriate equivalent (synonym) of the following words taken from the above passage :

Disputes:

1) Disruptions 2) Divisions
3) Diversions 4) Quarrels
5)Divergences
Answer : Quarrels
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Q10.
Directions: Read the following passage carefully and give the answers :

What are the good parts of our civilization ? First and foremost there are order and safety. If today I have a quarrel with another man, I do not get beaten merely because I am physically weaker and he can kick me down. I go to law, and the law will decide as fairly as it can between the two of us. Thus in disputes between man and man right has taken the place of might. Moreover, the law protects me from robbery and violence. Nobody may come and break into my house, steal my goods or run off with my children. Of course, there are burglars, but they are very rare, and the law punishes them whenever it catches them.
It is difficult for us to realize how much this safety means. Without safety these higher acti-vities of mankind which make up civilization could not go on. The inventor could not invent, the scientist find out or the artist make beautiful things. Hence, order and safety, although they are not themselves civilization are things without which civilization would be impossible. They are as necessary to our civilization as the air we breathe is to us; and we have grown so used to them that we do not notice them any more than we notice the air.
Another great achievement of our civilization is that today civilized men are largely free from the fear of pain. They still fall ill, but illness is no longer the terrible thing it used to be.... Not only do men and women enjoy better health; they live longer than they ever did before, and they have a much better chance of growing up.... Thirdly, our civilization is more secure than any that have gone before it. This is because it is much more widely spread.... Previous civilizations were specialized and limited, they were like oases in a desert.
 
Pick out the most appropriate words exactly opposite in meaning of the following words taken from the above passage :

Foremost:

1) Hind most 2) Unimportant
3) Disposed 4) Mature
5)Premature
Answer : Unimportant
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